Clear your history. IMDb Everywhere. Follow IMDb on. DPReview Digital Photography. Audible Download Audio Books. Wild Eye Releasing has our first look at the trailer. Quentin Tarantino's Once Upon a Time in Hollywood has been tearing up the box office for the past two weeks, and it has ignited quite a bit of conversation, perhaps more than any other movie released this summer.
At the heart of this Tinseltown fantasia rests the relationship between fading Western star Rick Dalton and his longtime stuntman Cliff Booth. In filmed performances, visible safety mechanisms can be removed by editing.
Jackie Chan Stunt Team - Wikipedia
In live performances the audience can see more clearly if the performer is genuinely doing what they claim or appear to do. To reduce the risk of injury or death, most often stunts are choreographed or mechanically-rigged so that, while they look dangerous, safety mechanisms are built into the performance.
Despite their well-choreographed appearance, stunts are still very dangerous and physically testing exercises.
From its inception as a professional skill in the early s to the s, stunts were most often performed by professionals who had trained in that discipline prior to entering the movie industry. Daredevils are distinct from stunt performers and stunt doubles ; their performance is of the stunt itself, without the context of a film or television show.
Daredevils often perform for an audience. Live stunt performers include escape artists , sword swallowers , glass walkers, fire eaters , trapeze artists , and many other sideshow and circus arts.
They also include motorcycle display teams and the once popular Wall of Death. The Jackass films and television series are well-known and prominent recorded examples of the act in modern cinematography. The earliest stunt performers were travelling entertainers and circus performers, particularly trained gymnasts and acrobats. The origin of the original name, the French language word cascadeur , may have been derived from the requirement to fall in a sequence of movements during a scene or stunt involving water Cascade is the French language term for waterfall . Later, in the German and Dutch circus use of the word Kaskadeur , it meant performing a sequential series of daring leaps and jumps without injury to the performer.
This acrobatic discipline required long training in the ring and perfect body control to present a sensational performance to the public. The word stunt was more formally adopted during the 19th-century travelling vaudeville performances of the early Wild West shows , in North America and Europe. The first and prototypical Wild West show was Buffalo Bill 's, formed in and lasting until The shows, which involved simulated battles with the associated firing of both guns and arrows, were a romanticized version of the American Old West.
During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, stage combat scenes of swordplay in touring theatrical productions throughout Europe, the Commonwealth of Nations and North America were typically created by combining several widely known, generic routines known as "standard combats". During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, fencing masters in Europe began to research and experiment with historical fencing techniques, with weapons such as the two-handed sword , rapier , and smallsword , and to instruct actors in their use.
Notable among these revivalist instructors were George Dubois , a fight director and martial artist from Paris who created performance fencing styles based on gladiatorial combat as well as Renaissance rapier and dagger fencing. Egerton Castle and Captain Alfred Hutton were part of a wider Victorian era group based in London , involved in reviving historical fencing systems.
Circa —, Hutton taught stage fencing classes for actors via the Bartitsu Club, where he also served on the Board of Directors and learned the basics of jujutsu and the Vigny method of stick fighting from his fellow instructors. By the early s, the motion picture industry was starting to fire-up on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean , but had no need for professional stunt performers. Second, the Spanish—American War had just ended, and there were many physically fit and trained in the handling of firearms young men looking for some work.
Thirdly, the former wild west was now not only tamed, but also starting to be fenced in, greatly reducing the need for and pay of the former cowboys. The first picture which used a dedicated stunt performer is highly debated, but occurred somewhere between and Professional daredevil, Rodman Law , was a trick parachutist known to thousands for climbing the side of buildings and parachuting out aeroplanes and off of tall base objects like the Statue of Liberty.
Some of his stunts were filmed by newsreel cameras and media still photographers.
Law was brought into movies in to perform some of his stunts as the hero. As the industry developed in the West Coast around Hollywood , California , the first accepted professional stuntmen were clowns and comedians like Charlie Chaplin , Buster Keaton and the Keystone Kops. From onwards, American audiences developed a taste for action movies , which were replicated into successful serials.
Producers also kept pushing the directors calling for riskier stunts using a recurring cast, necessitating the use of dedicated stunt doubles for most movie stars. Mix made his first appearance in The Cowboy Millionaire in October , and then as himself in the short documentary film titled Ranch Life in the Great Southwest in which he displayed his skills as a cattle wrangler. Mix eventually performed in over cowboy matinee movies during the s, and is considered by many as the first matinee cowboy idol.
The recruitment venture was aided in by the collapse of the Miller-Arlington rodeo show, that left many rodeo performers stranded in Venice, California. They including the young Rose August Wenger, who married and was later billed as Helen Gibson , recognised as the first American professional stunt woman. They then rode the 5 miles 8. The distance between station roof and train top was accurately measured, and she practiced the jump with the train standing still. In the actual shoot, with the trains accelerating velocity timed to the second, she leapt without hesitation and landed correctly, but with forward motion she rolled forward, saving herself from injury and improving the shot by catching hold of an air vent and dangling over the edge.
She suffered only a few bruises. The cowboys would then dress in their normal riding clothes unless told other wise, for which they were paid extra , and ride to the set, most of which were located to the north in the vicinity of the San Fernando Valley. Subsequently, a number of rodeo stars entered the movie industry on a full-time basis, with many "riding extras" eventually becoming movie stars themselves, including:   Hank Bell films, between and ; Bill Gillis ; Buck Jones ; Jack Montgomery initially worked as Tom Mix's body-double ; and Jack Padjeon first appeared in , played Wild Bill Hickok in the John Ford directed The Iron Horse in A focus on replicable and safe stunts saved producers money and prevented lost down-time for directors through reduced accidents and injury to performers.
In the script, Lloyd's "country boy" character goes to the city to be a success, and ends up climbing a tall building as a stunt. Critics at the time claimed it to be the most spectacular daredevil thrill comedy. The entire stunt sequence was shot on location the Atlantic Hotel in Broadway, Los Angeles demolished , at actual heights. But the films directors Fred C. Newmeyer and Sam Taylor planned into two safety features:.
Producer Hal Roach and Lloyd had been forced into the costs of planning and construction of these safety devices, as simply without them the city commissioners had refused the production a film permit. On seeing the results, he didn't film another production without them. In in his personal homage to Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd called Project A , Jackie Chan repeats some of the most famous scenes from the early film era, including Lloyd's clock scene from Safety Last! While Lloyd only hanged from the tower, Chan took it a step further and actually fell from the tower.
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Swashbuckler films were a unique genre of action movies, utilising the earlier developed art of cinematic fencing , a combination of stage combat and fencing. The most famous of these were the films of Douglas Fairbanks , which defined the genre. The stories came from romantic costume novels, particularly those of Alexandre Dumas and Rafael Sabatini , and included triumphant, thrilling music.
The preference to employ ready existing professionals from outside the film industry, either as performers or doubles, continued in the period both up to and beyond World War II , when again the industry was awash with young, fit men looking for work. With the later development of modern action movie, the accident rate of both stunt performers and movie stars started to quickly increase.
In the s, modern stunt technology was developed, including air rams , air bags , and bullet squibs. Dar Robinson invented the decelerator during this period, which used dragline cables rather than airbags for stunts that called for a jump from high places. These new professionals were not only driven to create visual impact, but also perform seemingly impossible feats in a safe and repeatable manner. In , Jackie Chan began experimenting with elaborate stunt action sequences in Dragon Lord ,  which featured a pyramid fight scene that holds the record for the most takes required for a single scene, with takes,  and the final fight scene where he performs various stunts, including one where he does a back flip off a loft and falls to the lower ground.
Police Story contained many large-scale action scenes, including an opening sequence featuring a car chase through a shanty town , Chan stopping a double-decker bus with his service revolver and a climactic fight scene in a shopping mall. This final scene earned the film the nickname "Glass Story" by the crew, due to the huge number of panes of sugar glass that were broken.
During a stunt in this last scene, in which Chan slides down a pole from several stories up, the lights covering the pole had heated it considerably, resulting in Chan suffering second-degree burns , particularly to his hands, as well as a back injury and dislocation of his pelvis upon landing. While modern computer-generated imagery CGI technology is considered by many stunt professionals [ who? While CGI allows directors to create stunts that would be very expensive, dangerous or simply impossible to perform with real stunt people,  the backlash has resulted in a new genre of "real" movies marketed on the basis that the scenes are real and that no CGI has been used to create the final production.