Bogota : Tercer Mundo , — , vol. Ramsey , Russell W. The two verbs employed to describe killings by government are consistently different from the words used for those slain by guerrillas.
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Notably , , by late September the government claimed that only fifty guerrillas had been killed in the area in the previous two months; see La Prensa , 28 September New York : The Free Press , , — See as well the discussion and accompanying references in Clinard , Marshall B.
Al Ataque! This was the first of a series of four or five weekly articles in which the journalist reported on his visit to the ELN's foco. Guevara , , Los Cachorros del Pentagon , 8 quote. More evidence on Venezuela appears in the following section. Berkeley : University of California Press , , Some excellent detail on Barrientos's support among the Bolivian peasantry, including the electoral tallies, can be found in Bernard , Jean-Pierre , et al.
Moore , Barrington , Jr. Sharpe , , ch. Similar thoughts are also expressed in Aaron , Lt. Colonel Harold R. Colonel Neal G. Benedict Kerkvliet has also suggested that government repression transforms mere protests into political rebellion; see The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines Berkeley : University of California Press , , —2.
London : Jonathan Cape , , Colonel John W.
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Independent church authorities also criticized and documented government terror as well, especially in Nicaragua and El Salvador. For Guatemala, see Black , George et al. All of these have occurred in El Salvador, at least a few in other locales. Widespread agreement on the Sendero's wave of terror is not shared in the literature on El Salvador, where left-wing scholars routinely deny such features. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
This data will be updated every 24 hours. Login Alert. Log in. Aa Aa. Cited by 17 Cited by. Crossref Citations. This article has been cited by the following publications. Ethnic conflict is a product of the factors shaping ethnic identity and not from ethnicity itself.
A youth bulge occurs when there is disproportionate percentage of a state population being between the ages of 15 and 24 years old. It occurs when infant mortality rates decrease and fertility rate increase. This youth bulge increases the working-age population; however, it does not translate to more jobs being available, which leads to severe unemployment.
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This will cause the young adult male population to "prolong dependency on parents, diminish self-esteem and fuel frustrations". Rational choice theory is a decision-making approach in which the decisions makers compare the expected utility of competing options and select the option that produces the most favorable outcome. Political violence occurs when the benefits in participating in political violence outweighs the costs. As Gurr explains, relative deprivation "is defined as actors' perception of discrepancy between their value expectations and their value capabilities.
Collective action theory explains why people participate in rebellions.
Generally, people decide to be free riders and not to participate in the rebellion. These people will still receive the benefits of the rebellion since the benefits are a public good. However, if people are expected to receive private goods , like material rewards or power, then that person is expected to rebel. Greed versus grievance provides two lines of explanations as to why individuals will fight. Individuals are said to be motivated by greed when they decide to join a conflict in an effort to better their situation and find that benefits of joining a rebellion or any kind of collective violence is greater than not joining.
In the aftermath of political violence, there are many changes that occur within the state, society, and the individual. Social science literature that examines how political violence affects the region, state, nation, and society. Charles Tilly argues that "war making", eliminating rivals outside a territory, "state making", eliminating rivals within a territory, "protection", protecting subjects within a territory, and "extraction", extracting resources to "[carry] out the first three activities", are what defines a state.
In other words, politically and non-politically motivated violence is necessary in state-building and building fiscal capacity. There are a growing number of social science studies that examine how political violence affects individuals and households. It is important to keep in mind that what happens at the individual and household level can affect what happens at the macro level. For example, political violence effects an individual's income, health, and education attainment, but these individual consequences combined can effect a state or nation's economic growth. There are empirical studies that link violence with increases in political participation.
One natural experiment examines the effect of being abducted by Joseph Kony 's LRA on political participation.
However, this effect is not just contained to Uganda. Another natural experiment on the effects of the Sierra Leone civil war found that victimized households, household whose members were killed, injured, maimed, captured, or made refugees, were more likely to register to vote, attend community meetings, and participate in local political and community groups than households that did not experience violence. A study on the effects of the Sierra Leone civil war found that victimized households, household whose members were killed, injured, maimed, captured, or displaced, did not have long-term impacts on owning assets, child nutrition, consumption expenditures and earnings.
The data can be used for medium- and long-term analysis and mapping of political violence across developing countries through use of historical data from , as well as informing humanitarian and development work in crisis and conflict-affected contexts through real time data updates and reports. ACLED defines "political violence" as "the use of force by a group with a political purpose or motivation. Political events are described as "a single altercation where often force is used by one or more groups for a political end. The data project catalogs nine different types of events.
Using data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program , the report tracks 5 types of violence. Interstate Conflicts are conflicts between two states. Intrastate Conflicts happen within a state such as a civil war.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Violence conducted with political goals. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.
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Classification of persons
Main article: Genocide. Main article: Torture. Main article: Capital punishment. Main article: Police brutality. Main article: Famine. Main article: Rebellion. Main article: Riot.